中国医药学：traditional Chinese medicine
中医基础理论:basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine
辨证论治:treatment based on syndrome differentiation
本草:materia medica //medicinal herbs
四气五味:four properties and five tastes
针灸acupuncture and moxibustion
各家学说theories of different schools
汗法: diaphoresis /diaphoretic therapy
补土派:school of invigorating the earth
病因学说:theory of etiology
寒凉药物:herbs of cold and cool nature
滋阴降火:nourishing yin to lower fire
瘀血致病:disease caused by blood stasis
气的运动变化:movement and changes of qi
形与神俱:inseparability of the body and spirit
神明: spirit/mental activity
脏腑:zang-organs and fu-organs/viscera
形神统一:unity of the body and spirit
阴阳失调:imbalance of yin and yang
正邪相争:struggle between healthy qi and pathogenic factors
治未病prevention of disease
调养 to cultivate health
正气 healthy qi
病邪 pathogenic factor
疾病的防治 prevention and treatment of disease
整体观念 concept of holism
经络系统system of meridians and collaterals
形神统一unity of the body and spirit
表里关系exterior and interior relation
生长化收藏five element function
正邪关系the states of pathogenic factors and healthy qi
对立统一unity and opposites
相互消长mutual waning and waxing
阴阳属性nature of yin and yang
阴平阳秘yin and yang in equilibrium
阳消阴长 yang waning and yin waxing
阴胜则阳病predominance of yin leading to disorder of yang
阳胜则热 predominance of yang generating heat
寒极生热 extreme cold generating heat
热极生寒extreme heat generating cold
相反相成 opposite and supplementary to each other
正邪斗争struggle between healthy qi and pathogenic factors
阳虚则寒yang deficiency leading to cold
阳损及阴consumption of yang involving yin
阴液不足insufficiency of yin-fluid
五行学说theory of five elements
运动变化motion and variation
相生相克mutual generation and restriction
生我我生to be generated and to generate
克我我克to be restricted and to restrict
生中有制restriction within generation
克中有生generation within restriction
木曰曲直Wood is characterized by growing freely and peripherally
火曰炎上Fire is characterized by flaming up
土曰稼穑Earth is characterized by cultivation and reaping
金曰从革Metal is characterized by change
水曰润下Water is characterized by moistening and downward flowing
方位配五行correspondence of the directions to the five elements
相乘相侮over-restriction and reverse restriction
土乘木The wood over-restrains the earth
土虚木乘 Earth deficiency leading to over-restriction by wood
金虚木侮metal deficiency leading to counter-restriction by wood
生克制化interrelationship between generation and restriction
制则生化restriction ensuring generation
传变transmission of disease
母病及子disease of the mother-organ affecting the child-organ
子病犯母disease of the child-organ affecting the mother-organ
肝肾精血不足insufficiency of kidney and liver essence and blood
肝阳上亢hyperactivity of liver yang
藏象学说 theory of visceral manifestations
五脏六腑 five zang-organs and six fu-organs
奇恒之府 extraordinary fu-organs
水谷精微 cereal nutrients
传化水谷 transmissions and transformation of food
贮藏精气 storage of essence
表里关系 interior and exterior relationship
治疗效应 curative effect
临床实践 clinical practice
藏而不泻 storage without excretion
心肝血虚deficiency of heart and liver blood
心肝火旺exuberance of heart and liver fire
心火亢盛exuberance of heart fire
滋肾养肝nourishing the kidney and liver
肝阴不足insufficiency of the liver yin
温肾健脾warming the kidney and strengthening the spleen
肾阳式微declination of kidney yang
脾阳不振inactivation of spleen yang
肝旺脾虚hyperactivity of the liver and weakness of the spleen
脾胃虚弱weakness of the spleen and stomach
平肝和胃soothing the liver and harmonizing the stomach
水湿停聚retention of water-dampness
肾阴不足insufficiency of kidney yin
心肾不交disharmony between the heart and kidney
水火不济discordance between water and fire
阴阳俱损simultaneous consumption of yin and yang
阴阳两虚simultaneous deficiency of both yin and yang
阴中求阳obtaining yang from yin
扶阳益火strengthening yang to increasing fire
祛风散寒eliminating wind to dispersing cold
消导积滞promoting digestion and removing food retention
潜阳息风suppressing yang to quench wind
阴阳的互根互用interdependence of yin and yang
阴阳离决separation of yin and yang
阴阳转化transformation between yin and yang
发热恶寒fever and aversion to cold
头身疼痛headache and body pain
感受湿邪the attack of dampness
清热泄火cleaning away heat and reducing fire
水湿停滞retention of water and dampness
气血运行circulation of qi and blood
疾病的本质与现象:nature and manifestations of disease
阴阳的相对平衡:relative balance between yin and yang
疾病的发生与发展:occurrence and development of disease
同病异治:treating the same disease with different therapies
异病同治:treating different diseases with the same therapy
TCM, a medical system with a history of thousands years，has summarized the experience of the Chinese people accumulating in the struggle against diseases.
Under the influence and guidance of classical Chinese materialism and dialectics,tradition Chinese medicine has eventually evolved into a medical system with unique theory through long term medical practice.
Tradition Chinese medicine is a science focusing on the study of the physiology and pathology of the human body as well as the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disease.
The Huangdi’s Canon of Medicine has summed up the medical achievements and clinical experiences since the Spring-Autumn Period and Warring States ，establishing the unique theoretical system of TCM and laying the foundation for the development of TCM
The Canon on Medical Problems is rich in content, supplementing what the Huangdi’s Canon of Medicine lacks and serving as the theoretical basis for the clinical practice of the latter generations
Yang is frequently in excess while yin is often in deficiency
Epedemic febrile disease is a clinical specialty concentrating on the study of the occurrence , developing tendency , diagnosis and treatment of febrile diseases in the four seasons.
8.中医在其长期的发展过程中，形成了各家学说In its long course of development, TCM has developed into various schools of theories.
The interior impairment of the spleen and stomach would bring about the occurrence of various diseases.
Chinese materia medica includes not only medicinal herbs but also minerals and animal parts.
During the long course of its development and practice , tradition Chinese medicine has been under the influence of classical Chinese materialism and dialectics.
Tradition Chinese medicine holds that the world is material and is the result of the interaction of yin and yang
The existence of human beings depends on the interaction between the celestial qi and terrestrial qi
According to tradition Chinese medicine, essence is the essential substance for life. Such an essential substance exists prior to the formation of the body and is hereditary
The combination of the parental essence is the primary substance for the formation of fetus
All the tissues and organs in the human body are in a unity which associate with each other and influence each other both physiologically and pathologically
Diseases are cognizable, preventable and curable.
The treatment of disease must focus on the root cause. That is what “the treatment of disease must concentrate on the principal aspect “ means
Cold disease should be treated by warm therapy, while febrile disease should be treated by cold therapy, deficiency syndrome should be treated by supplementing therapy, while excess syndrome should be treated by purgative therapy
Human being is one of the components in nature and keeps close relationship with nature
The process of life activity is a course in which yin and yang in the human body realize unity after constant contradictory movement
1.中医理论体系的基本特点就是整体观念和辨证论治TCM is characterized by the concept of organic wholeness and treatment based on syndrome differentiation.
Tradition Chinese medicine holds that the human body is an organic whole.
The components of human body functionally depend on each other and pathologically affect each other
The concept of holism permeates through all the fields in TCM, including physiology, pathology, diagnosis, syndrome differentiation and treatment.
The pathological changes in certain part or region of the human body are usually related to the conditions of viscera, qi and blood as well as yin and yang in the whole body
The condition of the viscera, qi , blood and body fluid all can be manifested over the tongue
The heart opens into the tongue and is exteriorly and interiorly related to the small intestine
The human beings are in correspondence with the universe
In the spring and summer, the pulse appears floating and large, while in the autumn and winter, the pulse appears deep and small
The yang-qi in the human body tends to flow in the exterior in daytime and in the interior at night
13. Treatment based on syndrome differentiation is the basic principle for understanding and treating disease in TCM and also one of the basic characteristics of TCM.
14. Syndrome is a pathological summarization of a disease at a certain stage of its development.
15. Syndrome differentiation and disease treatment are two inseparable parts in diagnosing and treating disease.
16. TCM emphasizes the differentiation of both disease and syndrome in understanding and treating disease.
Yin and yang are two categories in classical Chinese philosophy.
The opposition and waning-waxing of yin and yang are the basic laws in the universe.
Yin and yang refer to two opposite aspects of interrelated things or phenomena in the natural world.
The world is a material integrity and is the result of the unity of opposites of yin and yang.
The occurrence development and changes of all things in the universe result from the unity and opposition between yin and yang.
Yin and yang represent the properties of things that are both opposite and related to each other.
The celestial is light and lucid and thus pertaining to yang while the terrestrial qi is heavy and lucid and therefore pertaining to yin.
Yang transforms qi while yin shapes into configuration.
The process of mutual restriction between yin and yang signifies the course of waning and waxing between yin and yang.
Yin and yang depend on each other. Neither can exist in isolation.
Man has a physical shape which is inseparable from yin and yang.
TCM explains and summarizes that the physiological functions of human body according to the theory of yin and yang
3.功能属于阳，物质属于阴Function pertains to yang while substance to yin.
4.如果阴阳不能相互为用而分离，人的生命也就终止了The separation of yin and yang will lead to the end of life
The balance and harmony of yin and yang are the manifestations of health.
No matter how complicated the pathogenic changes of diseases are,, they all can be included in the predominance or decline of yin and yang.
The pathogenic factors refer to various factors that bring about disease.
Healthy qi refer to the structure and functions of the human body including the resistance against disease.
Asthenia of yin leads to heat in the interior while asthenia of yang brings about cold in the exterior.
If asthenia of yin or yang in the body develops to a certain degree, it will inevitably leads to insufficiency of the other side.
Wood fire earth metal and water are the most essential and indispensable materials.
Nothing in the world is solitary and static. In fact everything in the universe maintains harmonic balance through constant mutual generation and restriction.
The theoretical system of TCM has been under the influence of classical theories of the five elements.
五行理论主要用以分析各种事物的五行属性，也是研究事物之间相互联系的基本法则The theory of five elements is mainly used to analyze the properties of the five elements of various things according to the five elements and study the basic law of the inter-relation between things.
Water is characterized by moistening and downward flowing.
Fire is characterized by flaming upward.
Since the liver functions to ascend, it pertains to wood.
Since the heart yang functions to warm, it pertains to fire.
Since the spleen functions to transform and transport, it pertains to earth.
Since the lung functions to descend, it pertains to metal.