中国医药学:traditional Chinese medicine

中医基础理论:basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine

临床经验:clinical experience

辨证论治:treatment based on syndrome differentiation

本草:materia medica //medicinal herbs

中药Chinese herbs

四气五味:four properties and five tastes

针灸acupuncture and moxibustion

各家学说theories of different schools

汗法: diaphoresis /diaphoretic therapy

下法:purgative therapy

吐法:emetic therapy

补土派:school of invigorating the earth

病因学说:theory of etiology


医疗实践medical practice

治疗原则:therapeutic principles

寒凉药物:herbs of cold and cool nature

滋阴降火:nourishing yin to lower fire

瘀血致病:disease caused by blood stasis

先天之精:congenital  essence

气的运动变化:movement and changes of qi

形与神俱:inseparability of the body and spirit

神明: spirit/mental activity

脏腑:zang-organs and fu-organs/viscera

功能活动:functional activities

形神统一:unity of the body and spirit

阴阳失调:imbalance of yin and yang

正邪相争:struggle between healthy qi and pathogenic factors

治未病prevention of disease

调养 to cultivate health

正气 healthy qi

病邪 pathogenic factor

疾病的防治 prevention and treatment of disease

整体观念 concept of holism

五脏five zang-organs

六腑six fu-organs

经络系统system of meridians and collaterals

形神统一unity of the body and spirit

有机整体organic wholeness

表里关系exterior and interior relation

开窍opening into

生长化收藏five element function

脉象pulse conditions

正邪关系the states of pathogenic factors and healthy qi

自然现象natural phenomena

哲学概念philosophical concept

对立统一unity and opposites

相互消长mutual waning and waxing

阴阳属性nature of yin and yang

相互转化mutual transformation


相互制约mutual restraint

动态平衡dynamic balance

阴平阳秘yin and yang in equilibrium

阳消阴长 yang waning and yin waxing

阴胜则阳病predominance of yin leading to disorder of yang

阳胜则热 predominance of yang generating heat

寒极生热 extreme cold generating heat

热极生寒extreme heat generating cold

相反相成 opposite and supplementary to each other

生理功能physiological functions

病理变化pathological changes

临床诊断clinical diagnosis

有机整体organic wholeness/entirety

正邪斗争struggle between healthy qi and pathogenic factors

绝对偏盛absolute predominance

阳虚则寒yang deficiency leading to cold

阳损及阴consumption of yang involving yin

阴液不足insufficiency of yin-fluid


五行学说theory of five elements

运动变化motion and variation

条达舒畅free development

相生相克mutual generation and restriction

生我我生to be generated and to generate

克我我克to be restricted and to restrict

生中有制restriction within generation

克中有生generation within restriction

木曰曲直Wood is characterized by growing freely and peripherally

火曰炎上Fire is characterized by flaming up

土曰稼穑Earth is characterized by cultivation and reaping

金曰从革Metal is characterized by change

水曰润下Water is characterized by moistening and downward flowing

方位配五行correspondence of the directions to the five elements

相乘相侮over-restriction and reverse restriction

土乘木The wood  over-restrains the earth

土虚木乘 Earth deficiency leading to over-restriction by wood

金虚木侮metal deficiency leading to counter-restriction by wood

生克制化interrelationship between generation and restriction

制则生化restriction ensuring generation

传变transmission of disease

母病及子disease of the mother-organ affecting the child-organ

子病犯母disease of the child-organ affecting the mother-organ

肝肾精血不足insufficiency of kidney and liver essence and blood

肝阳上亢hyperactivity of liver yang

藏象学说 theory of visceral manifestations

五脏六腑 five zang-organs and six fu-organs

奇恒之府 extraordinary fu-organs

水谷精微 cereal nutrients

传化水谷 transmissions and transformation of food

贮藏精气 storage of essence

表里关系 interior and exterior relationship

治疗效应 curative effect

临床实践 clinical practice

藏而不泻 storage without excretion

心肝血虚deficiency of heart and liver blood

心肝火旺exuberance of heart and liver fire

心火亢盛exuberance of heart fire

滋肾养肝nourishing the kidney and liver

肝阴不足insufficiency of  the liver yin

温肾健脾warming the kidney and strengthening the spleen

肾阳式微declination of kidney yang

脾阳不振inactivation of spleen yang

肝旺脾虚hyperactivity of the liver and weakness of the spleen

脾胃虚弱weakness of the spleen and stomach

平肝和胃soothing the liver and harmonizing the stomach

水湿停聚retention of water-dampness

肾阴不足insufficiency of kidney yin

心肾不交disharmony between the heart and kidney

水火不济discordance between water and fire

阴阳俱损simultaneous consumption of yin and yang

阴阳两虚simultaneous deficiency of both yin and yang

损其有余reducing excess

补其不足supplementing insufficiency

阴中求阳obtaining yang from yin

虚寒证deficiency-cold syndrome

扶阳益火strengthening yang to increasing fire

祛风散寒eliminating wind to dispersing cold

消导积滞promoting digestion and removing food retention

潜阳息风suppressing yang to quench wind

阴阳的互根互用interdependence of yin and yang


阴阳离决separation of yin and yang

阴阳转化transformation between yin and yang

发热恶寒fever and aversion to cold

头身疼痛headache and body pain

感受湿邪the attack of dampness

清热泄火cleaning away heat and reducing fire

腠理muscular interstices

水湿停滞retention of water and dampness

气血运行circulation of qi and blood

疾病的本质与现象:nature and manifestations of disease

阴阳的相对平衡:relative balance between yin and yang

疾病的发生与发展:occurrence and development of disease

同病异治:treating the same disease with different therapies

异病同治:treating different diseases with the same therapy


TCM, a medical system with a history of thousands years,has summarized the experience of the Chinese people accumulating in the struggle against diseases.


Under the influence and guidance of classical Chinese materialism and dialectics,tradition Chinese medicine has eventually evolved into a medical system with unique theory through long term medical practice.


Tradition Chinese medicine is a science focusing on the study of the physiology and pathology of the human body as well as the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disease.


The Huangdi’s Canon of Medicine has summed up the medical achievements and clinical experiences since the Spring-Autumn Period and Warring States ,establishing the unique theoretical system of TCM and laying the foundation for the development of TCM


The Canon on Medical Problems is rich in content, supplementing what the Huangdi’s Canon of Medicine lacks and serving as the theoretical basis for the clinical practice of the latter generations


Yang is frequently in excess while yin is often in deficiency


Epedemic febrile disease is a clinical specialty concentrating on the study of the occurrence , developing tendency , diagnosis and treatment of febrile diseases in the four seasons.

8.中医在其长期的发展过程中,形成了各家学说In its long course of development, TCM has developed into various schools of theories.


The interior impairment of the spleen and stomach would bring about the occurrence of various diseases.


Chinese materia medica includes not only medicinal herbs but also minerals and animal parts.


During the long course of its development and practice , tradition Chinese medicine has been under the influence of classical Chinese materialism and dialectics.


Tradition Chinese medicine holds that the world is material and is the result of the interaction of yin and yang


The existence of human beings depends on the interaction between the celestial qi and terrestrial qi


According to tradition Chinese medicine, essence is the essential substance for life. Such an essential substance exists prior to the formation of the body and is hereditary


The combination of the parental essence is the primary substance for the formation of fetus


All the tissues and organs in the human body are in a unity which associate with each other and influence each other both physiologically and pathologically


Diseases are cognizable, preventable and curable.


The treatment of disease must focus on the root cause. That is what “the treatment of disease must concentrate on the principal aspect “ means


Cold disease should be treated by warm therapy, while febrile disease should be treated by cold therapy, deficiency syndrome should be treated by supplementing therapy, while excess syndrome should be treated by purgative therapy


Human being is one of the components in nature and keeps close relationship with nature


The process of life activity is a course in which yin and yang in the human body realize unity after constant contradictory movement

1.中医理论体系的基本特点就是整体观念和辨证论治TCM is characterized by the concept of organic wholeness and treatment based on syndrome differentiation.


Tradition Chinese medicine holds that the human body is an organic whole.


The components of human body functionally depend on each other and pathologically affect each other


The concept of holism permeates through all the fields in TCM, including physiology, pathology, diagnosis, syndrome differentiation and treatment.


The pathological changes in certain part or region of the human body are usually related to the conditions of viscera, qi and blood as well as yin and yang in the whole body


The condition of the viscera, qi , blood and body fluid all can be manifested over the tongue


The heart opens into the tongue and is exteriorly and interiorly related to the small intestine


The human beings are in correspondence with the universe


In the spring and summer, the pulse appears floating and large, while in the autumn and winter, the pulse appears deep and small


The yang-qi in the human body tends to flow in the exterior in daytime and in the interior at night

13. Treatment based on syndrome differentiation is the basic principle for understanding and treating disease in TCM and also one of the basic characteristics of TCM.

14. Syndrome is a pathological summarization of a disease at a certain stage of its development.

15. Syndrome differentiation and disease treatment are two inseparable parts in diagnosing and treating disease.

16. TCM emphasizes the differentiation of both disease and syndrome in understanding and treating disease.


Yin and yang are two categories in classical Chinese philosophy.


The opposition and waning-waxing of yin and yang are the basic laws in the universe.


Yin and yang refer to two opposite aspects of interrelated things or phenomena in the natural world.


The world is a material integrity and is the result of the unity of opposites of yin and yang.


The occurrence development and changes of all things in the universe result from the unity and opposition between yin and yang.


Yin and yang represent the properties of things that are both opposite and related to each other.


The celestial is light and lucid and thus pertaining to yang while the terrestrial qi is heavy and lucid and therefore pertaining to yin.


Yang transforms qi while yin shapes into configuration.


The process of mutual restriction between yin and yang signifies the course of waning and waxing between yin and yang.


Yin and yang depend on each other. Neither can exist in isolation.


Man has a physical shape which is inseparable from yin and yang.


TCM explains and summarizes that the physiological functions of human body according to the theory of yin and yang

3.功能属于阳,物质属于阴Function pertains to yang while substance to yin.

4.如果阴阳不能相互为用而分离,人的生命也就终止了The separation of yin and yang will lead to the end of life


The balance and harmony of yin and yang are the manifestations of health.


No matter how complicated the pathogenic changes of diseases are,, they all can be included in the predominance or decline of yin and yang.


The pathogenic factors refer to various factors that bring about disease.


Healthy qi refer to the structure and functions of the human body including the resistance against disease.


Asthenia of yin leads to heat in the interior while asthenia of yang brings about cold in the exterior.  


If asthenia of yin or yang in the body develops to a certain degree, it will inevitably leads to insufficiency of the other side.


Wood fire earth metal and water are the most essential and indispensable materials.


Nothing in the world is solitary and static. In fact everything in the universe maintains harmonic balance through constant mutual generation and restriction.


The theoretical system of TCM has been under the influence of classical theories of the five elements.

五行理论主要用以分析各种事物的五行属性,也是研究事物之间相互联系的基本法则The theory of five elements is mainly used to analyze the properties of the five elements of various things according to the five elements and study the basic law of the inter-relation between things.


Water is characterized by moistening and downward flowing.


Fire is characterized by flaming upward.


Since the liver functions to ascend, it pertains to wood.


Since the heart yang functions to warm, it pertains to fire.


Since the spleen functions to transform and transport, it pertains to earth.


Since the lung functions to descend, it pertains to metal.